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Germany

Germany© Katja Budnikov

About Germany

Germany is located in the heart of Europe and its surface area spans 357,340 km2. Tens of thousands of localities lie between its northern coasts and the Alps in the South and you can find everything, from quaint fishing and mountain villages to romantic medieval towns and modern vibrant metropolises. Thanks to its diverse landscapes and rich nature, Germany offers an abundance of outdoor activities and on rainy days, interesting museums and splendid shopping centres make up for the bad weather. It is difficult to say, which of the 16 German states is the most beautiful, as each of them has its very own character, traditions and culture. Why don’t you visit them all and decide for yourself?

Schleswig-Holstein, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Lower Saxony, Hamburg and Bremen are all located in the north of Germany, which is characterised by the North German Plain that covers nearly half of entire country. Although the land is pretty flat, this huge expanse offers a wealth of unique natural landscapes that are home to rare birds and other wildlife. The mile-long sandy beaches of the Baltic Sea are ideal to relax, while the North Sea retreats twice a day to give way to an extraordinary natural phenomenon: the Wadden Sea. Some of the country’s largest cities are also located in the north of Germany. With about 1.75 million inhabitants, Hamburg is Germany’s second largest city and has been an important sea port and economic centre since the Middle Ages. Bremen is another beautiful hanseatic city and a must-see when visiting northern Germany.

Moving on to the East, this region is shared by the following states: Berlin, Brandenburg, Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt and Thuringia. These states - and Mecklenburg-Vorpommern - have only been part of the Bundesrepublik for 25 years. From the Second World War until 1990, they belonged to the German Democratic Republic (DDR) and as from 1961 they were even physically separated from the rest of Germany by the infamous inner German border – traces of this unscalable wall can be still seen in Berlin, Germany’s capital and largest city. Another great city in eastern Germany is Dresden, which is nicknamed “Florence of the North” due to its magnificent architecture.

The landscape of the western German states - North Rhine-Westphalia, Rhineland-Palatinate, Saarland, Hesse- is dominated by the Rhine River — Germany’s most important waterway. This lovely region is mostly known for its mild and favourable climate and fertile soils where grapes are grown on both riverbanks to produce some amazing wine, and for its countless medieval castles sitting enthroned on rocky outcrops high above the river. North Rhine-Westphalia is the most populous German state; five out of about 17 million people live in the Ruhr region, a former coal-mining district and the largest agglomeration in Germany. Cologne - world famous for its majestic Gothic cathedral – and Düsseldorf are two exciting Rhine metropolises that outbid each other with their annual colourful carnival celebrations. Further to the south, lies the next big city: Frankfurt am Main, the capital of Hesse, is an important European financial centre.

With an area of 70,550 km2 Bavaria is the largest German state. In contrast, the neighbouring state of Baden-Württemberg is just about half this size but not less popular a tourist destination. Munich and the Oktoberfest, the Neuschwanstein Castle and the Zugspitze have made Bavaria famous all over the world. All these sights are all located in Upper Bavaria, however, there is much more to discover in this state: The beautiful cities of Nuremberg or Regensburg, for instance, or the deep Bavarian Forest. The loveliest spots in Baden-Württemberg where to spend your Germany holiday are the Black Forest and Lake Constance. This lake actually consists of two separate lakes that are connected by a short river. By the way, if you make one step too much when visiting the Old Town of Constance, you will be already in Switzerland!

Vacation Rentals and Holiday Homes in Germany

As far as the eye can see – the most amazing viewpoints in Germany

You don’t necessarily need to climb the highest Alpine peaks in order to be able to enjoy panoramic views of Germany. Whichever region you are spending your Germany holiday in, you can be sure to always find a viewpoint close by. Whether mountains, cliffs, watch towers or viewing platforms - the whole country is dotted with high-up places from where you can let your gaze wander to the horizon and beyond. The following paragraphs will present you with some of Germany’s most amazing vantage points that are well worth a visit or even a small detour.

The first two viewpoints are located on Baltic Sea islands in the far north of Germany. The first lookout is the Dornbusch lighthouse on Hiddensee and the second one is the Viktoriasicht on Rügen, Hiddensee’s neighbouring island. The whitewashed lighthouse is Hiddensee’s characteristic landmark and it stands 28 metres tall on the highest point of the island. From its platform you will enjoy magnificent views of the Baltic Sea and you can even spot Rügen in the distance. The Viktoriasicht on Rügen’s east coast is the best place to marvel at and take fantastic pictures of the island’s famous white chalk cliffs including the distinctive Königsstuhl. If you spend your Germany holiday on Rügen, an excursion to the Viktoriasicht is an absolute must.

The following scenic outpost can be found at the other end of Germany, in Upper Bavaria. The Alpspix viewing platform, located just below the summit of the Alpspitze (2628 metres), does not only offer one of the most spectacular views in Germany, but the platform itself is also very spectacular and certainly not suggested to anyone who is afraid of heights or not free from giddiness. It consists of two separate walkways protruding 13 metres from the mountain face, forming a “floating” X above the 1,000 metre deep Höllental Valley. If you can sum up enough courage to approach the walkways’ glazed ends, you will be rewarded with unique panoramic views of the surrounding mountains, including the Zugspitze.

The Cloef viewpoint near Mettlach (about 40 kilometres south of Trier) in the Saar-Hunsrück Nature Park is another amazing viewpoint and impresses with one of Germany’s most breath-taking nature views. Located 180 metres above the Saar River, this viewing platform lies directly opposite the point where the river makes a sharp bend, forming the famous Saar Bow (Saarschleife). For millennia the river has dug deep into the bedrock, creating this truly impressive nature spectacle. The area within the Saarschleife is a densely wooded mountain ridge, which can be explored on foot, by bike or boat.

The next must-see vantage point is located in a completely different corner of Germany, in Saxony. Besides, it also offers a different type of view. The Monument to the Battle of the Nations (Völkerschlachtdenkmal) is one of the most important sights in Leipzig and it commemorates the Battle of the Nations that took place near Leipzig in 1813. With a height of 91 metres, it is even one of the largest historical monuments in Europe and in order to reach the observation platform, you will have to climb 364 steps. This effort pays off as you gradually see Leipzig and its surroundings spreading before your eyes. Weather permitting, your eyes can even reach as far as the Ore Mountains.

Similarly stunning cityscape views can be enjoyed from the Main Tower in Frankfurt and the south tower of the Cologne Cathedral. With a height of 200 metres, the Main Tower in downtown Frankfurt is one of Germany’s highest buildings and the city’s only office building with public viewing platforms. Of course, you don’t need to walk all the way up to the platforms – Germany’s fastest lifts take you there within a few seconds. Unfortunately, such a service is not offered by the Cologne cathedral and you will have to endure all the 533 steps on foot in order to reach the viewing platform at a height of about 97 metres. Sounds like quite an arduous endeavour, doesn’t it? Don’t be put off because you would surely regret it if you had to miss this unique occasion of seeing Cologne and the Rhine from a bird’s eye view!

Discover Germany on foot – popular hiking trails in Germany

With endless sandy beaches on the northern coasts, green river valleys and lush forests in the heartland and steep Alpine peaks in the south of the country, Germany makes a true hiker’s paradise. Located in the heart of Europe, its rich nature and diverse landscapes cater for all tastes, levels and ages.

Hiking in Germany
When exploring Germany on foot, you will not only enjoy breath-taking views, discover amazing flora and fauna and stunning natural monuments but you will also get in close touch with history and traditions. Romantic castle ruins and magnificent palaces are the highlights of many hiking trails, and in quaint villages you will enjoy regional specialities and witness local customs. Although you will come across many agencies selling a wide range of guided trekking tours in Germany, you can always choose to set out on your own — after all, Germany is covered in a dense network of well-marked walking trails extending a total length of about 200,000 kilometres.

Beaches, cliffs, seaside resorts: hikes in northern Germany
Hiking in the north of Germany is an unforgettable experience and great fun all year round. In north-eastern Germany, the coast of the Baltic Sea is ideal for a leisurely stroll through sand dunes and along high cliffs offering you uninterrupted sea views. If you are looking for a more challenging hike, however, the German part of the E9 European long-distance walking route is highly recommended. It starts in Travemünde near Lübeck, stretching 400 kilometres eastwards along the Baltic Sea all the way to Ahlbeck — a chic seaside resort on the island of Usedom, located at the Polish border. Highlights on this route are the beautiful hanseatic towns of Wismar or Stralsund. If you find that too long, then the North Sea to Baltic Trail might be right choice for you. This popular 109 kilometre long trail is quite easy and links the North Sea to the Baltic Sea by crossing from Meldorf to Kiel through the scenic south of Schleswig-Holstein.

Castles, vineyards, natural wonders: walking trails in central Germany
While the north of Germany is rather flat, the central part is characterised by rolling hills and low and mid mountain ranges. One of the top walking routes in western central Germany is the Rheinsteig Trail that runs from Bonn to Wiesbaden along the right bank of the Rhine River. This 320 kilometre long walk takes you past medieval castles, picturesque towns and through the lovely Upper Middle Rhine Valley, Germany’s most famous winegrowing region. With a length of 112 kilometres, the Painters’ Way (“Malerweg”) is definitely shorter than the Rheinsteig Trail but not less spectacular. It is located in the eastern side of central Germany and leads through one of Germany’s most beautiful regions. The Elbe Sandstone Mountains in Saxon Switzerland are famous for their bizarre rock formations. As you walk through this wild and unspoilt nature, you will certainly understand why it inspired so many Romantic artists.

Alpine peaks, forests, moors: hiking tours in the south of Germany
The southern German states of Bavaria and Baden-Württemberg are two of the most amazing hiking destinations in Germany. Although the majestic Alps of Upper Bavaria and the Allgäu are famous for their tremendous variety of scenic walking trails, Germany’s longest hiking route is located in the north of Bavaria. Furthermore, the 660 kilometre long Goldsteig (Marktredwitz to Passau) is even particularly varied as it passes through five nature reserves and one national park. At some point it splits into two equally impressive routes: the northern route takes you close to the Czech border and you will conquer the highest peaks of the Bavarian Forest. The southern trail is less demanding as it leads through hilly grasslands. If you spend your Germany hiking holiday in Bavaria’s neighbouring state of Baden-Württemberg, the Westweg Trail is a must. This 285 kilometre long hiking route connects Pforzheim with Basel (Switzerland) and takes you through the loveliest landscapes of the Black Forest, including sunny mountain pastures, deep valleys, dark forests and highland moors.

Whichever region you choose to spend your Germany walking holidays in, you can always be sure to find a hiking trail that suits best your individual needs – whether you are a casual walker or an experienced climber.

Germany Christmas Markets© Katja Budnikov

The most beautiful Christmas markets in Germany

Germany is world famous for its festive markets that are held all over the country before Christmas, attracting thousands of visitors from all around the globe. Each year, locals and visitors alike are swept away by this magical atmosphere of sights, smells and sounds. This is no surprise as these colourful Christmas markets offer the perfect occasion to hunt for unique Christmas gifts, indulge in mouth-watering German Christmas specialities like mulled wine, ginger bread and stollen and to simply have a good time!

Discovering German Christmas fairs
Christmas markets in Germany have existed for more than 600 years. Their origin goes back to medieval times when, at the beginning of winter, markets where held in towns and villages in order to give citizens the opportunity to stock up on meat and anything else they needed to bring them through the long, cold season.

When visiting Germany during Advent, one will quickly notice that there is hardly any German town or village that doesn’t have its own Christmas market. The largest Christmas markets are located in the big cities, of course. They are usually set up in the city centre or on a large square in front of a picturesque backdrop with enough space to accommodate all the wooden huts offering traditional food, local delicacies and handicrafts. German Christmas fairs are never complete without a (towering) Christmas tree adorned with thousands of lights — a truly spectacular sight, especially at night and when covered in snow.

Christmas markets in Germany usually start in the last week of November and run right through to Christmas Eve. Opening hours can vary but in most places they open as early as 10:00 am and close at 9:00 or 10:00 in the evening. If you are planning a pre-Christmas trip to Germany, spare some time to visit one of the following markets as they are definitely not be missed.

Germany’s top 5 Christmas markets
The “Nürnberger Christkindlesmarkt” is one of Germany’s oldest and most famous Christmas markets and many of its approximately two million visitors believe that it is also the most beautiful one. It takes place at the Hauptmarkt, in the heart of Nuremberg’s Old Town. It is traditionally inaugurated with a speech held by the “Christkindl” - an angelic being who brings the gifts in many parts of Germany and particularly in Bavaria. A very popular souvenir from the Nuremberg Christmas market is the “Zwetschgenmännle”, a small figurine made from dried prunes.

The “Striezelmarkt” in Dresden is another Christmas market with a long tradition. It dates back to the 15th century and its funny name derives from the old German word for “stollen”. In fact, this Christmas fair is all about this fruit cake and the first place where stollen was sold to the people of Dresden. The annual highlight of this Christmas market is the “Stollen festival”, where a gigantic stollen, weighing several tons, is paraded through the streets to the Christmas market and then ceremonially cut into pieces, which are sold to the crowd.

The largest Christmas fair of northern Germany is held in Rostock. It is located in the historical city centre, close to the harbour. Its special attraction is the world’s largest Christmas pyramid (according to the Guinness Book of World Records), which is more than 20 metres high and is composed of three walkable levels and another three levels with life-size crib figures.

Every year in December the world famous Gothic cathedral of Cologne serves as the backdrop for a truly magnificent Christmas fair. With about four million visitors and 150 stands, the “Weihnachtsmarkt am Kölner Dom” is certainly one of Germany’s largest and most popular Christmas markets. The vast selection of high-quality crafts, delicious organic foods and the gigantic Christmas tree at the centre of a unique starlights tent will definitely put you in the right Christmas mood.

Hamburg spoils you for choice when it comes to Christmas markets and the “Hamburger Weihnachtsmarkt” on the Rathausmarkt is highly recommended. This historical German Christmas fair is arranged into differently themed alleys and it even has its characteristic mulled wine that you should definitely taste. By the way, don’t miss out on the flying Santa, who visits the market every afternoon and evening!

Culinary delights of Germany

What is the German cuisine like? Well, it is definitely very hearty and extremely delicious but it is almost impossible to define it exactly, as Germany’s cooking is influenced by all the cultures surrounding it: Denmark in the north, Poland and the Czech Republic in the east, Austria and Switzerland in the south and France and the Benelux states in the west. Of course, there are some national dishes but their preparation and ingredients vary from region to region. Whenever time allows, Germans eat three meals a day: breakfast, lunch and dinner whereby breakfast plays an important role. Especially on weekends, most Germans take lengthy breakfasts with fresh (brown) bread, rolls, pastries, butter, jam, ham, eggs, muesli, yoghurt, coffee, tea and orange juice. Lunch, the main meal of the day, is traditionally eaten at around 12 o’clock. Dinner is taken also very early, between 6 and 7 pm and it can be a warm meal or just a cold snack consisting of bread, butter, various cheeses and cold cuts. Having described German eating habits, let’s take a look at some mouth-watering German recipes, to give you a better idea what German food is all about.

Soups and stews are very popular in Germany. Simple soups are often eaten as a starter and one can distinguish between broth based soups with boiled meats and thick creamy soups made from potatoes, legumes, vegetables or mushrooms. Eintöpfe (stews) such as the Pichelsteiner, a speciality from the Bavarian Forest, are very hearty soups consisting of potatoes, pasta or rice, various vegetables and plenty of meat or sausages cooked altogether in one pot – hence the name. They are considered a whole meal by themselves and the perfect dish for a cold winter’s day!

If you love meat, Germany is the right place for you! Don’t miss the opportunity to visit a German butcher’s shop, when on holiday in Germany. You will be amazed by the wealth of different types of meat, sausages and cold cuts they offer! There are about 1,500 different types of sausages in Germany, from cold cuts like salami to sausages like the famous Munich Weißwurst and the Berlin currywurst. Besides sausages, Germans also love meat: beef, pork, poultry, game. Schnitzel is a very popular meat dish that you will find in any good German restaurant throughout the country. These fried or grilled cutlets come in all imaginable meats and varieties: veal, pork, chicken, turkey, breaded or plain with or without sauce. The classic par excellence is, however, a version from Vienna, Austria – the Wiener Schnitzel. It is a thin slice of veal coated in an egg and breadcrumb batter and fried until golden brown and crispy. Schnitzels are usually served with chips, potato wedges, mash or fresh homemade pasta (Spätzle) in some regions, accompanied by vegetables or a salad as a side dish.

Despite the fact that Germans eat a lot of meat, they also do like fish. Seafood is eaten especially in the north on the Baltic Sea or North Sea coasts and islands, where fresh fish and shellfish are caught daily. In inland regions, freshwater fish from lakes and rivers such as trout, carps, zanders and chars are on the menu. One of the most consumed sea fish in Germany is herring and there are countless different ways of preparing it. Whether you enjoy this fish à la meunière i.e. dredged in flour and pan-fried or as marinated filets in a bun or as a rolled-up Rollmops on the Hamburg fish market – herring is a truly German fish delicacy!

In Germany, sweet dishes are not just regarded as desserts but very often, they are even eaten as a main dish, particularly in the Alps regions of southern Germany. Kaiserschmarrn and Germknödel are two typical sweet meals that you will find in any Gasthof or mountain restaurant in Bavaria and even Austria. While the former is an egg and flour pan cake cut into pieces, enriched with juicy raisins and sprinkled with icing sugar, the latter is a steamed yeast dumpling filled with plum jam, served with hot vanilla sauce and garnished with poppy seeds. A northern German sweet meal speciality is Milchreis – rice boiled in milk and sprinkled with sugar and cinnamon or served with Rote Grütze – a compote made from red berries. Simply delicious and absolutely filling!

Winter sports in Germany

Winter sports fans from all around the globe consider Germany an insider’s tip, although the country is becoming increasingly popular as a winter holiday destination. Finest powder snow, high snow reliability, varied slopes and not least beautiful nature provide superb conditions for an active and relaxed winter holiday. Whether skiing, snowboarding, cross-country skiing, tobogganing, ice skating or simply hiking – Germany offers great snow adventures for young and old for at least three months a year. Depending on the region, you can start skiing as early as mid-December until well into spring. Unlike many other countries, most German ski villages have retained their authentic character and of course you can also find classy ski resorts, if this is more to your liking. The most popular German ski resorts are located in the Alps but even other regions are equally as attractive. They are all easily accessible and in general, they are also well maintained and equipped with powerful snow cannons, in case nature needs a helping hand.

Popular winter sport regions and ski resorts in Germany
If you are planning to spend your next skiing holidays in Germany, why not stay at Garmisch Partenkirchen in southern Bavaria? Located at the foot of the Zugspitze, this place is an ideal starting point from where the surrounding mountain peaks can be easily reached via several cable cars and ski lifts. The Garmisch-Classic ski area offers 40 kilometres of predominantly easy to moderate pistes, including five downhill runs. However, the about three kilometres long Kandahar World Cup run is quite tricky and a challenge even to the most experienced skiers! The Zugspitze Glacier Ski resort is located at an even higher altitude of 2,000 to 2,720 metres and offers 20 kilometres of runs that are covered in thick layers of natural snow for nearly six months a year!

Bayerischzell is another excellent winter sports centre in Upper Bavaria, located in the heart of Germany’s largest ski region. While the pistes at the Wendelstein summit are perfect for advanced and experienced skiers, the lower Sudelfeld slopes are easier and thus better for beginners and families. Besides skiing and snowboarding, Bayerischzell offers plenty of other possibilities to enjoy the beautiful winter landscape, including walking, sledging and ice skating.

The Feldberg is the highest peak in the Black Forest (Baden-Württemberg), thus providing optimal snow conditions for all winter sports fans. The Liftverbund Feldberg connects several ski areas that can be accessed with one single ski pass and which cater for all tastes and levels. At the Feldberg, there is even a varied snowpark where numerous competitions are held for freestylers and snowboarders throughout the season. Besides alpine skiing and snowboarding, this ski region is also ideal for ski mountaineering and cross-country skiing. Off the pistes, winter hiking and snowshoe trails are an attractive alternative for anyone who prefers exploring this lovely region on foot.

Besides the Alps and the Black Forest, the Sauerland – a picturesque region of low mountain ranges stretching from North Rhine-Westphalia to Hesse – is another great place where to spend your ski holidays in Germany. The Skiliftkarussell Winterberg stretches over six mountains with over 80 different runs in total. Despite the rather low altitude, snow conditions are generally very good thanks to efficient snow cannons. Willingen is another versatile ski area in the Sauerland. Just like Winterberg, this ski resort is ideal for families and beginners, as it offers mainly easy to moderate pistes. It also features several tobogganing slopes and a great apres-ski programme. Both ski resorts are less than a two hour drive away from Frankfurt and the Ruhr region.

Oberhof in the Thuringian Forest is a favourite destination with all cross-country skiers. In winter, almost the entire length of the 168 kilometre long Rennsteig hiking trail running across this enchanting low mountain range is groomed with tracks, taking you through deep forests covered thick in snow. The ski area Großer Arber in the Bavarian Forest is another great spot for this kind of skiing and it also offers varied slopes for downhill skiers and snowboarders. At the lively and cosy town of Bodenmais, you will surely find accommodation according to your taste and plenty of entertainment to round off your day out in the snow.

Superlative sights and places of interest in Germany

Do you know which of Germany’s beaches is the longest or which of the country’s peaks is the highest? And do you know Germany’s largest harbour or oldest city? No? Then let us take you on a small discovery tour of Germany’s longest, highest, largest and oldest locations! We have chosen some of the most interesting attractions in order to arouse your wanderlust and to give you some sightseeing ideas for your next holiday in Germany.

Germany’s longest sandy beach
42 kilometres of finest white sand – if you believe that such beaches can only be found in some tropical paradise on the other side of the world, then you probably have never been to Usedom. This Baltic Sea Island in north-eastern Germany has been a popular holiday destination in Germany since the 19th century and it features several chic seaside resorts, one of which is Zinnowitz. Its endless sandy beach is ideal for sunbathing and all kinds of water sports in summer and long walks in winter. By the way, with more than 1,900 hours of sunshine per year, Usedom is also one of Germany’s sunniest regions.

Germany’s northernmost point
Germany’s northernmost point is just four kilometres away from Denmark. The so-called Ellenbogen is a long and narrow peninsula near the sea side resort of List and the northern-most part of the North Sea island of Sylt. The Ellenbogen is a nature and bird reserve which is ideally visited on foot or by bike. Despite being pretty small, this peninsula features even two lighthouses: List-Ost and List-West. The Königshafen, the large bay between the harbour of List and the Ellenbogen, forms part of the Schleswig-Holsteinisches Wattenmeer National Park, which protects the world’s largest continuous tidal flats stretching from Denmark to The Netherlands. The Ellenbogen is the perfect place for all who seek the solitude of nature and want to enjoy sun, wind and waves at the northernmost edge of Germany.

Germany’s highest mountain…
… is the Zugspitze, of course! With an altitude of 2,962 metres, this peak of the Wetterstein Mountains in Upper Bavaria is one of the top places to see in Germany. With three glaciers and covered in snow for nearly half of the year, the Zugspitze makes a superb ski resort in winter, while hikers and climbers enjoy the diverse nature during summertime. There’s nothing that stops you from conquering this summit on foot, however, for the less adventurous ones among you, there are three cable cars that take you right to the top, where you can enjoy breath-taking views of the Bavarian, Austrian and even Swiss Alps from a panorama restaurant.

Germany’s largest harbour
Yes, you are perfectly right, Germany’s largest harbour is indeed the Port of Hamburg. Moreover, it is even one of largest and busiest harbours in the whole of Europe. It was founded during the Middle Ages at a very strategic position on the Elbe River and it has significantly contributed to Hamburg becoming the wealthy city that it nowadays is. Besides container terminals and shipyards, it also features passenger terminals for international cruise liners. The Port of Hamburg is so impressive that, it has actually become one of the city’s main attractions alongside with the historic warehouse district, St. Michael’s Church and the St. Pauli Reeperbahn and this is why a harbour tour should be included in any sightseeing programme.

One of Germany’s oldest cities
“Augusta Treverorum” is the Latin name for one of Germany’s oldest cities – if not the oldest city: Trier in Rhineland-Palatinate was founded in 16 B.C. by the Roman Emperor Augustus. The city’s famous landmark, the monumental Porta Nigra city gate, is one of Germany’s most visited tourist attractions and just like the amphitheatre and the Imperial Baths, it also dates to Roman antiquity and has been classified as a UNESCO world heritage site. Other architectural masterpieces not to be missed include the Early Gothic Church of Our Lady and the Electoral Palace, which is considered one of the most beautiful Rococo palaces in the world. When strolling through Trier’s picturesque Old Town, you will quickly notice the ubiquitous influence of the French “savoir vivre” lifestyle that particularly manifests itself in the excellent food and drink and stems from Trier’s close proximity to Luxemburg and France.